Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) DEFINITION Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is the daily use of the hormone oestrogen alone (known as oestrogen replacement therapy) or in combination with the synthetic hormone progestin. HRT is taken during menopause to increase levels of oestrogen that usually decrease during menopause. DESCRIPTION During menopause, the… Read Article

Hot flushes

Hot flushes DEFINITION Hot Flushes are the most common symptoms experienced by women as a result of menopause. A Hot Flush is a sudden sensation of intense heat which is usually accompanied by perspiration and reddening of the skin. DESCRIPTION Approximately one third of a woman’s life will be lived… Read Article

IVF (In vitro fertilisation)

IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation) DEFINITION IVF or In Vitro Fertilisation is a procedure where an egg is fertilised in a laboratory and the resulting embryo is then placed in the mother’s uterus. DESCRIPTION IVF means, quite literally, ‘fertilisation in a glass’. It involves harvesting eggs from the female parent and… Read Article


Mammography DEFINITION Mammography or a Mammogram is a test that uses low-level x-rays to find abnormal areas in the breast. DESCRIPTION Mammography can detect small tumours that may not be able to be felt by a woman or her Doctor. Mammography can also show other changes in breast tissue and… Read Article


Mastectomy DEFINITION Mastectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the breast. DESCRIPTION Treatment of cancers of the breast usually involves surgery to remove as much of the tumour (cancer) as possible. The patient will have to decide whether to have the whole breast removed (mastectomy) or just to have the… Read Article


Menopause DEFINITION Menopause is sometimes known as the ‘change of life’, and is defined as the ending of menstruation (when a woman’s periods stop). DESCRIPTION Menopause is the end of egg production (ovulation). This occurs as a result of declining levels of the female sex hormone, oestrogen, which regulates menstruation…. Read Article

Menopause and weight gain

Menopause and weight gain DESCRIPTION Menopause is the term used to describe the stopping of menstrual periods due to decreased ovarian function. The decrease in ovarian function involves the progressive decline in the secretion of oestrogen and progesterone, which causes ovulation (egg release) to eventually stop. Menopause usually occurs around… Read Article


Menstruation DEFINITION Menstruation is part of a woman’s monthly hormonal cycle which results in blood discharging from the vagina. This discharge contains the lining of the uterus which thickens each month to provide a bed for a fertilised egg (pregnancy). If pregnancy does not occur, this lining breaks down and… Read Article

Morning after pill

Morning after pill DEFINITION The Morning After Pill is a form of emergency contraception that may be used following unprotected sexual intercourse, or if contraception failed (e.g broken condom). It is not meant to be used as a regular form of contraception. DESCRIPTION The name ‘Morning After Pill’ seems to… Read Article

Pap smear

Pap smear DEFINITION A Pap Smear is a test where a sample of cells is collected from around the cervix (the small opening between the uterus and the vagina) and smeared onto a glass slide. This smear is then examined under a microscope for any abnormalities. The Pap smear is… Read Article