Tooth decay

Tooth decay DEFINITION Decay, or caries, is destruction of the hard tooth, by acid dissolving. As the destruction occurs, a small cavity or hole can result. DESCRIPTION Decay is caused by plaque. The bacteria in your mouth are usually harmless. Food or drinks that are high in carbohydrates, specifically a… Read Article

Teeth grinding

Teeth grinding DEFINITION Teeth grinding (also known as bruxism) usually occurs at night and can cause the teeth to become worn or loosened. DESCRIPTION Teeth grinding is a complex disorder that is not properly understood despite extensive research. About half of all adults will grind their teeth at some point;… Read Article


Stroke DEFINITION A Stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is insufficient, causing an area of brain damage. DESCRIPTION A Stroke occurs when a blood vessel leading to the brain either becomes blocked or bursts. The part of the brain normally fed… Read Article


Shingles DEFINITION Shingles, also known as Herpes zoster, is an acute infection caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). This is the same virus which causes chickenpox. DESCRIPTION Shingles is an infection or inflammation of the nerves that lie just beneath the skin’s surface. After chickenpox, the virus… Read Article

Ringworm scalp

Ringworm scalp DEFINITION Tinea capitis, also known as ‘ringworm of the scalp’ is one of several forms of the ringworm fungal infection.  DESCRIPTION Commonly, the infection looks like severe dandruff on various places on the scalp. Some infections cause patches of hair loss (bald patches) to develop. The bald patches… Read Article

Plantar warts

Plantar warts DEFINITION Plantar Warts (verrucae plantaris) are contagious epithelial tumours caused by numerous types of human papilloma virus. Plantar means pertaining to the sole of the foot. As the name suggests plantar warts are found on the sole of the foot. DESCRIPTION Plantar Warts are greyish in colour and,… Read Article

Peptic ulcer

Peptic ulcer DEFINITION The term Peptic Ulcer is used to describe a group of ulcerative disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract.  An ulcer is an erosion of the mucous membrane which may be accompanied by inflammation and infection, and may occur at different locations. The major forms of gastrointestinal ulcers… Read Article


Obesity DEFINITION Obesity is the term used to describe the accumulation of excessive body fat. DESCRIPTION The Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to measure Obesity. BMI is calculated by dividing the weight of a person in kilograms by the square of their height in metres. A person with a… Read Article

Motor neurone disease

Motor neurone disease DEFINITION Motor Neurone Disease (MND) is the name given to a group of diseases in which the nerve cells controlling muscles of movement are slowly destroyed. These nerve cells are known as motor neurones, and they occur in the brain and spinal cord. With no nerves to… Read Article


Melanoma DEFINITION Moles are flat or elevated, flesh coloured to dark-brown markings located randomly over the entire skin surface. Moles can become malignant (melanoma) requiring removal. DESCRIPTION Moles are a clump of cells with different pigment (colour) than the surrounding skin. The surface of moles varies from smooth to pebbly… Read Article